1. Zinda DH, Soliman HH, El Yarmany SA, Hamisa MF, Hasan AM. Can Lactobacillus acidophilus improve minimal he[patic encephalopathy? A neurometabolite study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Arab J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;14(3):118-22. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24206740

2. Bowe W, Patel NB, Logan AC. Acne vulgaris, probiotics, , and the gut-brain-skin axis: from anecdote to translational medicine. Benef Microbes. 2014 Jun 1;5(2):185-99. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23886975

3. Saulnier DM, Ringel Y, Heyman MB, Foster JA, Bercik P, Shulman RJ, Versalovic J, Verdu EF, Dinan TG, Hecht TG, Guarner F. The intestinal microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics in neurogastroenterology. Gut Microbes. 2013 Jan-Feb;4(1):17-27. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23202796

4. Lynch AM, Walsh C, Delaner A, Nolan Y, Campbell VA, Lynch MA. Lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in signaling in hippocampus is abrogated by IL-10 – a role for IL-1 beta? J Neurochem. 2004 Feb;88(3):635-46. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14720213

5. Konturak PC, Brzozowski T, Konturak SJ. Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach, and treatment options. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;62(6):591-9. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22314561

6. Dai C, Zheng CQ, Jiang M, Jiang LJ. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 28;19(26):5973-80. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24106397

7. Scott LV, Clarke G, Sinan TG. The brain-gut axis: a target for treating stress-related disorders. Mod Trends Pharmacopsychiatri. 2013;28:90-9. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25224893

8. Slyepchenko A, Carvalho AF, Cha DS, Kasper S, McIntyre RS. Gut emotions – mechanisms of action of probiotics as novel therapeutic targets for depression and anxiety disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;13(10):1770-86. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25470391

9. Borre YE, Moloney RD, Clarke G, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;817:373-403. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997043

10. Cryan JF, O'Mahony SM. The microbiome-gut-brain axis: from bowel to behavior. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Mar;23(3):187-92. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21303428

11. Stanghellini V, Barbara G, Cremon C, Cogliandro R, Antonucci A, Gabusi V, Frisoni C, De Giorgio R, Grasso V, Serra M, Corinaldesi R. Gut microbiota and related diseases: clinical features. Intern Emerg Med. 2010 Oct;5 Suppl 1:S57-63. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20865476

12. Xiao J, Li S, Sui Y, Wu Q, Li X, Xie B,Zhang M, Sun Z. Lactobacillus casei -01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 14;9(11):e112773. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25396737

13. Rao AV, Bested AC, Beulne TM, Katzman MA, Iorio C, Berardi JM, Logan AC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Gut Pathon. 2009 Mar 19;1(1):6. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19338686

14. Cho GH, Kim TI, Lee SK, Yano KM, Kim WH. Effect of Lactobacillus GG and conditioned media on IL-1beta-induced IL-8 prodcution in Caco-2 cells. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008 Aug;43(8):938-47. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19086277

15. Wall R, Marques TM, O'Sullivan O, Ross RP, Shanahan F, Quingley EM, Dinan TG, Liely B, Fitzgerald GF, Cotter PD, Fouhy F, Stanton C. Contrasting effects of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 on the composition of murine brain fatty acids and gut microbiota. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1278-87. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492373

16. Russell DA, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. Metabolic activities and probiotic potential of bifidobacteria. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011 Sep 1;149(1):88-105. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21763022

17. O'Sullivan E, Barret E, Grenham S, Fitzgerald P, Stanton C, Ross RP, Quigley EM, Cryan JF, Dinan TG. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels? Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):199-207. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986359

18. Savignac HM, Kiely B, Cinan TG, Cryan JF. Bifidobacteria exert strain-specific effects on stress-related behavior and physiology in BALB/c mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Nov;26(11):1615-27. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251188

19. Savignac HM, Tramullas M, Kiely B, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Bifidobacterai Modulate Cognitive Processes in an Anxious Mouse Strain. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Mar 17. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794930

20. Nishine R, Mikami K, Taahashi H, Tomonaga S, Furuse M, Hiramoto T, Alba Y, Koga Y, Sudo N. Commensal microbiota modulate murine behaviors in a strictly contamination-free environment confirmed by culture-based methods. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2013 Jun;25(6):521-8. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23480302

21. Khoshdel A, Verdu EF, Kunza W, McLean P, Bergonzelli G, Huizinga JD. Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 inhibits AH neuron excitability. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Jul;25(7):e478-84. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23663494

22. Berck P, Park AJ, Sinclair D, Khoshdel A, Lu J, Huang X, Biennerhassett PS, Fahnestoc M, Moine D, Berger B, Huizinga JD, Kunze W, McLean PG, Bergonzelli GE, Collins SM, Verd EF. The anxiolytix effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Dec;23(12):1132-9. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988661

23.Berck P, Verdy EF, Foster JA, Macri J, Potter M, Huang X, Malinowski P, Jackson W, Biennerhassett P, Neufeld KA, Lu J, Khan WI, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Cherbut C, Bergonzelli GE, Collins SM. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system. Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec;139(6):2102-2112. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600016

24. Berck P, Denou E, Collins J, Jackson W, Lu J, Jun J, Deng Y, Biennerhassett P, Macri J, McCoy KD, Verdu EF, Collins S. The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor behavior in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011 Aug;14(2):599-609. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21683077

25. Ryu Si, Kim BG, Park MS, Lee YB, Lee SB. Evaluation of enhanced hygroscpicity befidogenicity, and aticariogenicity of enzymatically synthesized beta-galactosyl-trehalose oligosaccharides. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):4184-8. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17429983

26. Khailove L, Dvorak K, Arganbright KM, Halpern MD, Kinouchi T, Yairma M, Dvorak B. Bifidobacterium bifidum improves intestinal integrity in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Plysiol. 2009 Nov;297(5):G940-G949. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20501441

27. Tillisch K, Labus J, Kilpatrick L, Jiang Z, Stains J, Ebrat B, Guyonnet D, Legrain-Raspaud S, Trotin B, Nalibolt B, Mayer EA. Consumption of fermented milk product with probiotic modulates brain activity. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jun;144(7):1394-401. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474283

28. Fond G, Boukouaci W, Chevalier G, Regnault A, Ebert G, Hamdani N, Dickerson F, Macgregor A, Boyer L, Dargel A, Oliveira J, Tamouza R, Leboyer . The "psychomicrobiotic": Targeting microbiota in major psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Pathol Biol (paris). 2015 Feb;63(1):35-42. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468489

29. Maer EA, Knight R, Mazmanian SK, Cryan JF, Tillisch K. Gut microbes and the brain: paradigm shift in neuroscience. J Neurosci. 2014 Nov 12;34(46):15490-6. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25392516

30. Vitetta L, Bambline M, Alford H. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and modd. Inflammopharmacology. 2014 Dec;22(6):333-9. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25266952

31. Tillisch K. The effects of gut microbiota on CNS function in humans. Gut Microbes. 2014 May-Jun;5(3):404-10. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24838095

32. Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Melancholic microbes: a link between gut microbiota depression? Neurohastroenterol Motil. 2013 Sep;25(9):713-9. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23910373

33. Perez-Martinez G, Bauer C, Collado MC. Understanding gut microbiota in elderly's health will enable intervention through probiotics. Benaf Microbes. 2014 Sep;5(3):235-48. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24889891

34. Bharttacharjee S, Lukiw WJ. Alzheimer's disease and the microbiome. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013 Sep 17;7:153. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24062644

35. Daulatzai MA. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Triggers Gut Dysbiosis, Neuroinflamamtion, Gut-Brain Axis Dysfunction, and Vulnerability or Dementia. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015 Feb 2. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642988

Additional Links To Citations:

36. MAIER, S. F., GOEHLER, L. E., FLESHNER, M. and WATKINS, L. R. (1998), The Role of the Vagus Nerve in Cytokine-to-Brain Communication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840: 289–300. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09569.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09569.x/abstract

37. Changing Gut Bacteria Through Diet Affects Brain Function, UCLA Study Shows http://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/changing-gut-bacteria-through-245617

38. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012; Authors: Rebecca Wall, Tatiana M Marques, Orla O'Sullivan, R Paul Ross, Fergus Shanahan, Eamonn M Quigley, Timothy G Dinan, Barry Kiely, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Paul D Cotter, Fiona Fouhy, and Catherine Stanton "Contrasting effects of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 on the composition of murine brain fatty acids and gut microbiota" Am J Clin Nutr 2012 ajcn.026435; First published online April 4, 2012. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.026435

39. Abstract for "The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner" by G Clarke, S Grenham, P Scully, P Fitzgerald, R D Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan and J F Cryan in Molecular Psychiatry June 12, 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.77

40. Diop L, Guillou S, Durand H. Probiotic food supplement reduces stress-induced gastrointestinal symptoms in volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):1-5.

41. O'Sullivan E, Barrett E, Grenham S, Fitzgerald P, Stanton C, Ross RP, Quigley EM, Cryan JF, Dinan TG. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels? Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep 1;2(3):199-207.

42. Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, Bienenstock J, Cryan JF. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 20;108(38):16050-5.

43. Citation: Kang D-W, Park JG, Ilhan ZE, Wallstrom G, LaBaer J, et al. (2013) Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68322. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068322

44. Barrett, E., Ross, R.P., O'Toole, P.W., Fitzgerald, G.F. and Stanton, C. (2012), γ-Aminobutyric acid production by culturable bacteria from the human intestine. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113: 411–417. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05344.x

45. Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders Hsiao, Elaine Y. et al. Cell , Volume 155 , Issue 7 , 1451 - 1463

46. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/73/2/380s.full

47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11157345?dopt=Abstract