Harvard University has no affiliation with PhysioTru, Inc.


    Tsuji M, Murota SI, Morita I. Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3) suppressed tube-forming activity in endothelial cells induced by vascular endothelial growth factor. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003 May;68(5):337-42.

    Pawar A, Jump DB. Unsaturated fatty acid regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity in rat primary hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 19;278(38):35931-9.

    Gotoh N, Nagao K, Onoda S, Shirouchi B, Furuya K, Nagai T, et al. Effects of three different highly purified n-3 series highly unsaturated fatty acids on lipid metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 25;57(22):11047-54.

    ** DPA has not been extensively subjected to research due to the limited availability of the pure compound.


    (From same page:

    Summary/Highlights: Several large studies have demonstrated that blood levels of DPA are independently and positively correlate with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease to the same or greater extent than EPA and DHA. Additionally, studies on purified DPA in animal and cell cultures showed that DPA has potential to improve various aspects of human health.

    Eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acids decrease macrophage prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokine production. Pepper-Yowell A.R., Wang S., Byelashov O.A., Sellers M.D., Harris T.L., Ballou M.A

    The distribution of DPA in blood and tissue lipids and its potential as a wellness biomarker. Bibus D. Lipid Technologies, LLC and the University of Minnesota.

    The bioavailability of DPA vs EPA–a short term study. Fard S.G., Turchini G., Paul Lewandowski P., Sinclair A.J. Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.


Additional findings:






    Summary/Highlights: In addition, there is evidence that n-3 DPA possesses 10-fold greater endothelial cell migration ability than EPA, which is important in wound-healing processes. An in vivo study has reported that n-3 DPA reduces the fatty acid synthase and malic enzyme activity levels in n-3 DPA-supplemented mice and these effects were stronger than the EPA-supplemented mice.

    Schwab JM, Chiang N, Arita M, Serhan CN. Resolvin E1 and protectin D1 activate inflammation-resolution programmes. Nature. 2007 Jun 14;447(7146):869-74.

Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, King IB, et al. : Circulating long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and incidence of congestive heart failure in older adults: the cardiovascular health study: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(3):160–170 10.7326/0003-4819-155-3-201108020-00006

Amano T, Matsubara T, Uetani T, et al. : Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on coronary plaque instability: an integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound study. Atherosclerosis. 2011;218(1):110–116 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.05.030

Leng GC, Horrobin DF, Fowkes FG, et al. : Plasma essential fatty acids, cigarette smoking, and dietary antioxidants in peripheral arterial disease. A population-based case-control study. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994;14(3):471–478 10.1161/01.ATV.14.3.471

Hino A, Adachi H, Toyomasu K, et al. : Very long chain N-3 fatty acids intake and carotid atherosclerosis: an epidemiological study evaluated by ultrasonography. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176(1):145–149 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.04.020

Akiba S, Murata T, Kitatani K, et al. : Involvement of lipoxygenase pathway in docosapentaenoic acid-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000;23(11):1293–1297 (Japanese Study Reference.)

Lamalice L, Le Boeuf F, Huot J: Endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2007;100(6):782–794 10.1161/01.RES.0000259593.07661.1e

Kanayasu-Toyoda T, Morita I, Murota S: Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3), an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1996;54(5):319–325 10.1016/S0952-3278(96)90045-9

Gottlicher M, Widmark E, Li Q, et al. : Fatty acids activate a chimera of the clofibric acid-activated receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(10):4653–4657 10.1073/pnas.89.10.4653 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Horton JD, Goldstein JL, Brown MS: SREBPs: transcriptional mediators of lipid homeostasis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2002;67:491–498 10.1101/sqb.2002.67.491

Pawar A, Jump DB: Unsaturated fatty acid regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity in rat primary hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(38):35931–35939 10.1074/jbc.M306238200

Kishida E, Tajiri M, Masuzawa Y: Docosahexaenoic acid enrichment can reduce L929 cell necrosis induced by tumor necrosis factor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761(4):454–462 10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.03.023

Wall R, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, et al. : Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(5):280–289 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00287.x

Assies J, Lieverse R, Vreken P, et al. : Significantly reduced docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes from schizophrenic patients compared with a carefully matched control group. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(6):510–522 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00986-0

Kelly L, Grehan B, Chiesa AD, et al. : The polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DPA exert a protective effect in the hippocampus of the aged rat. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32(12):2318.e1–2318.e15 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.04.001

Mori, T.A., et al., Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1999. 70(5): p. 817-25.

Thorsdottir, I., et al., Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. Int J Obes (Lond), 2007. 31(10): p. 1560-6.

Anti-Lipogenic/Fat Burning:


Insulin Function:


Eye cell survival / stroke:,NIU-BBA-AM-Bone%20&%20Joint%20Health%20(mailshot),NIU-BBA-AM-SportsNutrition,NIU-BBA-AM-GMP,NIU-BBA-AM-GMP%20mailshot,NIU-BBA-AM-Digestive,NIU-BBA-AM-WeightManagement,NIU-BBA-AM-Weight%20Management%20(mailshot),NIU-BBA-AM-Sports%20Nutrition%20(mailshot),NIU-BBA-AM-SportsNutrition%20mailshot,NIU-BBA-AM-Digestive%20mailshot,NIU-BBA-AM-FVUBASF,NIU-BBAM-AM-COGNITIVE,NIU-BBA-AM-COGNITIVE

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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Jun;15(6):1132-6. Plasma enterolignans are associated with lower colorectal adenoma risk. Kuijsten A, Arts IC, Hollman PC, van't Veer P, Kampman E.

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Carbohydr Polym. 2013 Jul 25;96(2):466-73. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.028. Epub 2013 Apr 18. Structure and anti-inflammatory capacity of peptidoglycan from Lactobacillus acidophilus in RAW-264.7 cells. Wu Z, Pan DD, Guo Y, Zeng X.

Acta Paediatr. 2013 Oct 31. doi: 10.1111/apa.12487. [Epub ahead of print] Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. Szajewska H, Ruszczyński M, Kolaček S

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J Pharm Sci. 1979 May;68(5):586-8. Decreased tetracycline bioavailability caused by a bismuth subsalicylate antidiarrheal mixture. Albert KS, Welch RD, DeSante KA, DiSanto AR

Dig Dis Sci. 2004 Mar;49(3):475-84. Green banana and pectin improve small intestinal permeability and reduce fluid loss in Bangladeshi children with persistent diarrhea. Rabbani GH, Teka T, Saha SK, Zaman B, Majid N, Khatun M, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ.

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J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;136(1):41-5. Effect of the dietary fiber glucomannan on chronic constipation in neurologically impaired children. Staiano A, Simeone D, Del Giudice E, Miele E, Tozzi A, Toraldo C

Harvard University has no affiliation with PhysioTru, Inc.

Andrographis Paniculata

Ji L, Liu T, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang Z. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cell growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med. 2007 Oct;73(13):1397-401.

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Xu T, Pan J, Zhao L. Simultaneous determination of four andrographolides in Andrographis paniculata Nees by silver ion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008 Sep;46(8):747-50.

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Liu J, Wang ZT, Ji LL. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of neoandrographolide. Am J Chin Med. 2007;35(2):317-28.

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Hyalauronic Acid

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Bagga H, Burkhardt D, Sambrook P, March L. Longterm effects of intraarticular hyaluronan on synovial fluid in osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol. 2006 May;33(5):946-50.

DMAE Bitartrate

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Ginko Boloba

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Trick L, Boyle J, Hindmarch I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation and discontinuation on activities of daily living and mood in free living older volunteers. Phytother Res. 2004 Jul;18(7):531-7.

St John Wort



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Bonoczk P, Gulyas B, dam-Vizi V, et al. Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine. Brain Res Bull. 2000 Oct;53(3):245-54.

Phosphatidylserine Complex

Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, Petrie W, Nunzi MG, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 1991 May;41(5):644-9.

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ALC Supports the Brain Altern Med Rev. Kidd PM.

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ALC Helps Sustain BDNF Levels Under Stress Neurosci Lett. Bigini P, Larini S, Pasquali C, Muzio V, Mennini T.

ALC Lowers Cholesterol and Fat Accumulation Associated with Aging J Lipid Res. Tanaka Y, Sasaki R, Fukui F, Waki H, Kawabata T, Okazaki M, Hasegawa K, Ando S.

ALC Protects Brain Cells From Alcohol Damage Neurochem Res. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Catalano C, Dinotta F, Bates TE, Calvani M, Stella AM.

ALC Stops Toxin-Induced Loss of Brain Energy Ann N Y Acad Sci. Binienda ZK.

ALC, Lipoic Acid, DHA, and PS Stop Cogntive Decline Nutr Res. Suchy J, Chan A, Shea TB.

ALC Helps Diabetic Neuropathy Ann Pharmacother. Evans JD, Jacobs TF, Evans EW.

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Br J Nutr. 2002 Oct;88(4):347-54. Lycopene prevents sugar-induced morphological changes and modulates antioxidant status of human lens epithelial cells. Mohanty I1, Joshi S, Trivedi D, Srivastava S, Gupta SK.

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Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):762-9. Effect of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin on plasma carotenoids and their transport in lipoproteins in age-related macular degeneration. Wang W1, Connor SL, Johnson EJ, Klein ML, Hughes S, Connor WE.